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DRE Trainings

DRE applications are currently being accepted.

The 2023 Vermont Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) Training School application period is open. Please consider supporting an officer from your agency to apply.

The Drug Evaluation and Classification (DEC) Program has received national acclaim for its success in identifying the drug-impaired driver. Officers trained as DREs are frequently called upon to differentiate between drug influence and medical and/or mental disorders and is an extremely valuable tool in combating the adverse impact of drug and alcohol impaired driving in our communities.

DRE School is extremely demanding. To receive certification as a DRE, two phases of training must be completed. The following summarizes each phase:

ACADEMIC TRAINING: This phase is typically conducted over ten days (80 hours). It includes courses in physiology, vital signs, standardized field sobriety testing (SFST), and extensive information on each of the seven categories of the drugs of abuse. The training includes an SFST proficiency examination, five written quizzes, and three written examinations. Students must achieve a minimum of 80% on the three examinations and must demonstrate proficiency in administering SFSTs in order to progress to the certification phase.

CERTIFICATION PHASE: After successfully completing the academic portion, students must complete the certification training phase. It is the student’s responsibility to complete the certification requirements within six months following the DRE School. These requirements include conducting a minimum of 12 drug influence evaluations while under the supervision of a DRE instructor, identifying subjects under the influence of four of the seven drug categories, and attaining a 75% toxicological confirmation rate. In addition, the student must maintain a certification progress log and rolling log and submit a written curriculum vitae (CV). Finally, the student must obtain the written endorsement of two certified DRE instructors.

DRE certification is valid for two years. In order to maintain certification, DREs must conduct a minimum of four evaluations every two years, submit an updated rolling log and an updated CV, and attend eight hours of approved recertification training.

VT DRE Recruiting Video

Download the application here.



DRE Online Continuing Education Opportunity

The Role of Prescription Drugs in Multi-Substance Impaired Driving

December 7, 2022, 1:00 PM CST

Webinar Hosted by Abbott


Multi-substance impairment is one of the greatest challenges facing modern efforts to combat impaired driving. While mainstream prevention and education programs focus heavily on alcohol, cannabis, and opioid abuse, the role of prescription medications in impaired driving is largely overlooked and underappreciated.

Join Abbott as we hear from Matt Myers who will examine various prescription use patterns and combinations that contribute to multi-substance impairment, as well as the role of drug interactions, tolerance, and research gaps in establishing clear understanding of the issues. Illustrative examples will highlight challenges and opportunities from actual forensic cases.

Please register at this link

Title: Forensic Toxicology in DUI Cases: Bringing Out the Nerd in You

Date: Tuesday, December 13, 2022

Time: 2p-330p

Presenter: Amy Miles

           Director of Forensic Toxicology 

           Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene

           UW School of Medicine and Public Health

           National Resource Toxicologist

Registration Link:

Description:  You have received the toxicology report back from your laboratory for your DUI case.  Listed on the report are drugs that you know are not the active parent, but you observed impairment.  Now what?  What did the subject ingest?  What drugs are there as a result of the body's metabolism?  Your lab is always a great resource, yet there is some preliminary information you can learn to help navigate the report before you must write an email or make a call to the lab.  This presentation will discuss the differences between active drugs, their metabolites as well as various precursors and derivatives so that one can better understand and handle drug DUI cases using several examples of specific cases.

Title:  Kratom: The New Drug Substitute 

Date: Tuesday, December 20, 2022

Time: 1p-2p Eastern

Presenter: Cpl. Ryan Hutton - Missouri Highway Patrol

Registration Link:

Description: Kratom is a unique drug that is being promoted as a drug substitute. This promotion is causing it to grow in popularity at a rapid rate. Law enforcement officers are contacting individuals who have used this drug, though officers are unsure of what it is, its legal status, forms it can be found, methods of use, and its effects on the user. Kratom: The New Drug Substitute, provides officers with general knowledge of Kratom, its psychoactive alkaloids and provides impairment indicators observed when three Kratom consumers completed drug influence evaluations.

Title: Marijuana & Driving in 2023: It’s Not Just Delta-9-THC Anymore

Date: Tuesday, January 17, 2023

Time: 2p-330p


 Erin L. Karschner, Ph.D., F-ABFT

  Forensic Toxicologist, Armed Forces Medical Examiner System

Rebecca L. Hartman, Ph.D., F-ABFT

  Chief Toxicologist, Monroe County Office of the Medical Examiner Rochester, NY

Registration Link:

Description:  Marijuana is the second most frequently encountered substance in driving under the influence (DUI) cases in the United States. Legalization has resulted in more drivers exposed to Delta-9-THC, the primary intoxicating component of marijuana. In states that have not yet legalized marijuana, man-made variants of Delta-9-THC are often sold in products as legal alternatives. These variants, or isomers, can be found in stores and online in infused cannabis flower, vaping oils, and in various edible forms. In particular, Delta-8-THC and Delta-10-THC isomers are now appearing in seized drug and DUI cases. This presentation will describe indicators of marijuana intoxication on the road, the most reliable methods of detecting marijuana use during a Drug Recognition Expert evaluation, and the importance of blood collection time for toxicology results. Cases involving THC isomers will be highlighted, and analysis and interpretation issues will be discussed.

Title: DRE and the IACP 2023: Updates & Enhancements

Date: Tuesday, February 21, 2023

Time: 2:00p-3:30p Eastern

Presenter: Joe Abrusci, Project Manager – DECP Eastern Region, International Association of Chiefs of Police

                   Jim Maisani, Project Manager – DECP Central Region, International Association of Chiefs of Police

                  Chuck Hayes, Project Manager – DECP Western Region, International Association of Chiefs of Police

Registration Link:

Description: This session is intended to provide an update on projects related to and affecting the DRE program that are underway, as well as new offerings to help further ARIDE and DRE training.  Additionally, it will provide updates on recent and pending Frye/Daubert Hearings regarding the DRE program.  Finally, it will provide information on judicial and prosecutor training related to the DRE program.

Is It Medical? How is a DRE to know? 

Date: Tuesday, March 28, 2023

Time: 2:00p-3:30p Eastern

Presenter: Tom Morehouse - DRE Agency Coordinator, Baltimore County Police Department

Registration Link:

Description: There has been an increase in high profile cases making national news concerning drug impairment and medical impairment cases. In some of these cases, officers thought it was a medical situation, but the person was under the influence of drugs. There have been situations where a DRE was involved and decided the impairment was because of drugs, when it was a medical issue. In this workshop, the presenter will review four common medical conditions (Stroke, Hypoglycemia, Parkinson’s Disease, and Autism/IDD) that officers could encounter both on the street and during DRE evaluations. Signs and symptoms of each situation will be reviewed and explained so that both prosecutors and law enforcement can better understand and differentiate these issues when investigating and prosecuting a potential DUI.

The Cannabis Impaired Driver: What We Can Expect to See

Date: Tuesday, April 18, 2023

Time: 2:00p-3:30p Eastern

Presenter: Shannon Bryant - Nevada TSRP

Registration Link:

Description: Cannabis is not a new drug to the impaired driving scene.  However, as more states continue to legalize its use for recreational purposes, the cannabis industry has exploded along with the variety and forms of the products.  Many of these products contain few, if any, of the telltale signs of the past, such as odor.  The mainstreaming of these products has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of people using cannabis products and choosing to get behind the wheel.  This presentation will cover how cannabis affects the human brain and how those effects translate into observable indicators, allowing for law enforcement to better document the cannabis DUI case to enhance the ability of prosecutors to proceed with such a case.  Additionally, it will provide a background into cannabis impairment for prosecutors, so that they can better evaluate and prepare for the handling of the difficult cannabis DUI case in court using a Drug Recognition Expert or other expert witness.

DRE Testimony: Bringing a DRE Case Alive

Date: Wednesday, April 26, 2023

Time: 1p-230p Eastern

Presenters: Sarah Garner, North Carolina TSRP & Eric Sweden

Registration Link:

Description: Drug Recognition Officers get it. Prosecutors get it. How do we convince the trier of fact that the twelve steps work, that the matrix is valid, and that DRE testimony is the best? We educate and convince. This webinar will offer ways for both the law enforcement officer and the prosecutor to better prepare and present the case in a fashion where the judge or jury will “get it” too.

What Really is the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus Test?

Date: Wednesday, May 24, 2023

Time: 1p-230p Eastern

Presenter: Jack E. Richman, OD, FAAO, FCOVD

    • Police Physician
    • SFST/Drug Recognition Expert Instructor
    • Hingham (MA) Police Department

Registration Link:

Description: Consumption of alcohol or certain other drugs hinders the ability of the brain to correctly control eye muscles. The resulting abnormal eye movements are readily observable and identifiable by properly educated and trained observers, such as law enforcement officers. These observations form the basis of some of the key assessments of impaired drivers that officers conduct at roadside during traffic stops, including the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN) and Vertical Gaze Nystagmus (VGN) tests. In this presentation, the HGN test, will explored in depth so that a DRE will be more aware of the HGN Test and to be better prepared to interpretive the results. Explored will be how this test is used and related with other tests for detection of alcohol and /or drug impairment and relationship to driving.

DRE Vital Signs: A Closer Look at Frequently Asked & Unasked Questions!

Date: Wednesday, May 31, 2023

Time: 1p-230p Eastern


    • Jack E. Richman, OD, FAAO, FCOVD
      • Police Physician
      • SFST/Drug Recognition Expert Instructor
      • Hingham (MA) Police Department
    • Donald W. Alves, MD, MS, FAAEM, FACEP
      • Medical Director, Tactical Physician,
      • Maryland Department of State Police
      • Medical Services Unit

Registration Link:

Description: The DRE evaluation considers vital signs (pulse rate, blood pressures and body temperature) as an integral part of the assessment. Yet people can vary widely in their vital signs. There are ranges within which most peoples’ vital signs will be nearly all of the time. However, various factors can affect these results ranging from a person's physical fitness, heredity, age, illness, anxiety to the methods and instruments used to measure. By taking a closer look at these inter relationships between blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature and breathing rate factors and the “normal” ranges, this information ought to help the DRE potentially make better decisions in distinguishing impairment from either drugs, medical impairment or both. This will be approached by raising a continual series of Frequently Asked and Unasked Questions.

.05 - Utah’s Experiment in Saving Lives

Date: Tuesday, June 20, 2023

Time: 2:00p-3:30p Eastern

Presenter: Tyson Skeen - Utah TSRP

Sgt. Jared Cornia - Utah Highway Patrol


Description: This session will discuss how Utah became the first state in the country to have a per se impaired driving level of .05 BAC. What happened? What is happening now? Where is this going? This session will discuss the mandatory training included in the statute for law enforcement that goes along with the amended per se impaired driving level. It will review how police, prosecutors, and the courts have all responded to the change and how things are really going when the rubber hits the road in Utah now with four years of experience after the change took place.